如何在Amazon EC2中挂载EBS作为永久存储

如何在Amazon AWS上申请EC2不再多说,很多前辈给出了教程,本文只说如何挂载那免费的30G EBS。我申请的一年的免费的32位Red Hat Enterprise Linux,详细参数:

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4 - ami-80bbf3d2 (64-bit) / ami-9cbbf3ce (32-bit)
Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 6.4, EBS-boot.
Root device type: ebs Virtualization type: paravirtual

首先登陆『AWS管理控制台』,进入『EC2』

左侧树依次点击『ELASTIC BLOCK STORE』-『Volumes』,点击『Create Volume』创建一个新的volume。

  • 按照AWS 免费套餐条款,每月有30 GB 的 EBS 可用。但也没必要最大额,够用即可。
  • Availability Zone要与你的主机实例在同一个区域,查看『INSTANCES』-『instances』列表中的Availability Zone选项。

创建完毕后,在左侧列表中选中右键Attach Volume,在Instances列表中选中你的Instance。在Device中输入设备名,如:/dev/sdf

接下来用putty登陆进你的云主机,不会不知道怎么做吧。

login as: ec2-user
Authenticating with public key "imported-openssh-key"
Last login: Thu Jan 2 21:10:51 2014 from 219.133.173.33
[ec2-user@ip-172-32-11-222 ~]$ df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/xvde1 6.0G 1.7G 4.2G 29% /
none 298M 0 298M 0% /dev/shm

使用df -h看到确实没有新建的volume,这是正常的,因尚未挂载。

[ec2-user@ip-172-32-11-222 /]$ df -T
Filesystem Type 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/xvde1 ext4 6193088 1892740 4237736 31% /
none tmpfs 305112 0 305112 0% /dev/shm

df -T查看当前系统的文件格式,为ext4。

[ec2-user@ip-172-32-11-222 /]$ mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdf
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Could not stat /dev/sdf --- No such file or directory
The device apparently does not exist; did you specify it correctly?

尝试根据当前文件系统来格式化新加的volume,报错没有文件,找不到设备?
可是我新创建的volume明明就是/dev/sdf啊,这是为什么?

[ec2-user@ip-172-32-11-222 /]$ sudo fdisk -l
Disk /dev/xvde1: 6442 MB, 6442450944 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 783 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/xvdj: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1305 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

fdisk -l命令看下设备名,居然名字是/dev/xvdj

[ec2-user@ip-172-32-11-222 /]$ sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdj
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
655360 inodes, 2621440 blocks
131072 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=2684354560
80 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 21 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

格式化。下面创建挂载点,将新增的volumn挂在上。

[ec2-user@ip-172-32-11-222 /]$ sudo mkdir /mnt/ebs
[ec2-user@ip-172-32-11-222 /]$ sudo mount /dev/xvdj /mnt/ebs
[ec2-user@ip-172-32-11-222 /]$ df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/xvde1 6.0G 1.9G 4.1G 31% /
none 298M 0 298M 0% /dev/shm
/dev/xvdj 9.9G 151M 9.2G 2% /mnt/ebs

参考文献

amazon ec2 - boto and attaching a ebs to ec2
How to convert Amazon instance store EC2 to EBS based EC2
调整amazon EC2云主机的EBS启动磁盘大小
在EC2中使用EBS作为永久存储
在EC2中使用EBS作为永久存储
linux查看硬盘使用情况命令

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